Chat Applications and Boundaries
Many companies are looking to real-time communication tools like instant messenger and other chat applications to enable staff to communicate real time, either internally or with external customers or partners. These tools can enable staff to be very efficient at communication and issue escalations, but the risks of information being shared incorrectly, or not properly archived present a risk that should be evaluated.
Internal-only – Internal only chat solutions provide staff the ability to quickly communicate internally, while limiting the change of accidental exposure of customer data outside the company. What internal-only chat solutions lack is the ability to communicate real time with customers or partners. By eliminating this capability, staff could have to use other, more time consuming solutions for external communication.
Internal and external – By providing staff with the ability to chat real time both internally, and externally they are enabled to communicate real time with customers, partners and other outside groups that contribute to the bottom line. The potential risk is a staff member could send an incorrect file, or cut/paste incorrect text into a chat window and reveal company proprietary data to an external entity.
No-chat – On one end of the extreme is to block all real-time chat communication, limiting staff to communication using standard email or phone conversations. While this can ensure no company sponsored tools are used for external communication, todays tech-savvy employees will often attempt to circumvent this limitation and use their own tools, potentially creating larger security implications because of non-centralized management. While eliminating chat applications can contribute to a more secure environment, the potential effect on employee productivity can be negative.
Compliance – Compliance is the other large factor for chat and other instant messenger type applications. Compliance can include a variety of items include detailed record keeping, legal documentation of discussions and industry-standard policies for data storage and handling. Most chat applications offer the option of storing an archive of all discussions, this feature should be evaluated against compliance requirements to ensure that necessary records are kept and unnecessary information is purged.
File Storage Locations
Storing of company files, including email archives, customer communications and other company documents must be done in a way that files can be recovered if lost, but also to ensure that access to those files is only grated to those requiring access to complete their assigned job. Few companies have a consistent method for file storage and sharing; most companies have differing policies for each department. It is important that a company have a defined policy that becomes part of the corporate culture to ensure collaboration and exchange of ideas, as well as compliance for document storage.
Local – Local file storage is individual employees storing company documents on the computers and other devices they use for conducting company business. Local file storage presents a challenge in all facets of security because of a lack of an audit trail for file access, a lack of recovery capabilities if an employee accidentally deletes a file, a lack of a recovery mechanism for lost laptops and ultimately a lack of recoverability if an employee were to leave and take their laptop with them. While local only storage provides an individual employee with the easiest access to the files they work with regularly, the company as a whole has very limited visibility into that employees archive of company data.
Network Shares – Network shares provide a loosely controlled environment for storing files that individual staff members have worked on or created. Network shares provide minimal levels of recoverability because they can be backed up more easily then individual laptops and desktops, and they can also do minimal revision control. They do lack real audit capabilities for file access and updates and do not provide staff a formal method for communicating who is working on any given document at any given time. Because of the lack of real auditing paired with the lack of real capability around access controls, network shares are not a good long term strategy for a company that could have many documents to manage.
Shared Collaboration Sites – Shared collaboration sites are the most common method in companies today to share files and documents internally. They provide a very robust method for storing documents, managing multiple revisions and managing access controls for documents based on a variety of factors including need-to-know, manager approval, project participation and department ownership.
Operating System Usage
Many companies will evaluate a given operating system (OS) as part of a security review, when the actual OS in use is a very minor component of the equation. At some point in time a security vulnerability has been found in all major operating systems. The risk posed by these various vulnerabilities has much more to do with how the vulnerability is responded too then the actual OS with the vulnerability.
Staff Skill Level – Probably the most important topic when addressing what operating systems (OS) to use in any environment is skill set of the system administration team, yet it is often not looked at in depth. Staff are most efficient at administering operating systems that they are familiar with and have experience with. If new operating systems are introduced, the initial ramp up time to be proficient for staff can be on the order of months. During this time there is risk that best practices will not be followed and work could potentially have to be redone. When evaluating operating systems for a given environment, the time consideration for training staff with the necessary skills must be considered.
Patch Process – The process to install performance, security and feature upgrade packages differs very widely from OS to OS. This has significant implications to the security of a system, the longer it takes the administration team to install patches, the longer a vulnerability could be exploited. When reviewing new operating systems, the tools they offer for installing and managing patches should be reviewed to ensure that patches can be installed and tested in a timely manner.
Vendor Relationship and commitment – A vendor's commitment to a particular OS and application stack is critical to ensuring a secure environment. When reviewing operating systems for use in your environment, it is important to understand the vendors commitment to the platform; this has implications for the speed of patches being released, as well as the capabilities a vendor has for developing patches in a timely manner.