Often companies will encrypt data stored within a database. This ensures that data is secure from simple eavesdropping by requiring a key to manipulate or view the data.
Encrypted Databases – Encrypted databases are becoming more common, either encrypted in their entirety, or portions of the database that are particularly sensitive. While encrypted databases to provide a lot of protection to unauthorized users, they do potentially provide slower access because of the additional CPU time needed to decrypt the data for use. Encrypted databases also pose a hazard for data loss in the event the keys necessary for data encryption and decryption are lost or otherwise must be regenerated.
Non-Encrypted Database – Standard databases are most common today, essentially databases that store the data in traditional ways without encryption. The risk they pose is that if the clients of the database are compromised, or backups of the database are compromised it is quite trivial to read the data contained in that database, which could contain personal information like user names, passwords and addresses. While traditional, non-encrypted databases can scale much larger because of the lower CPU usage, they do have significant risk to data compromise.
Device ownership is often a big topic of discussion, especially within companies hiring younger workers right out of college. Individuals will often get very comfortable with a platform while in school and expect to be using that same platform when they enter the workforce. When they later find out that their employer has a different OS or brand of laptop, employees will often use their personal devices for company business.
Company Devices – From a security standpoint, company owned devices are the most secure option, but at a cost. Employees will be less productive if they are forced to use a platform they are uncomfortable with or new too using. Company owned devices ensure that the company can recover the device should an employee leave and ensures that all software being used is licensed, virus free and properly monitored by corporate IT staff.
Personal Devices – While personal devices can allow workers to be more productive and comfortable with their operating environment, it comes at the cost of very decentralized IT management. Personal devices may not necessarily be covered by corporate software licensing agreements, and may not be kept up to date for security patches per company policy.
Combination – Most firms have settled on a combination of allowing personal hardware, but putting policies and tools in place to ensure it is managed by a centralized IT organization. This ensures that staff can have the tools they a are most familiar with, but data integrity, security and virus scanning is updated as company policies evolve.
File Transfer Policies
All companies have the need to transfer files, both internally and externally for review, collaboration and company communication. These documents present a risk to the company because confidential information could inadvertently be sent to unauthorized parties.
File Attachments to Email – Attaching files to email has several risks including a large need for capacity in the mail servers to handle the volume of traffic, as well as the potential that files could be inadvertently sent outside the company. While some modern email systems have the ability to scan out going email for specific content, this is often time consuming and can slow down the flow of communication.
Collaboration Tools – Limiting employee's ability to send files via email attachments is becoming much more common; as a solution to the need to share files, many companies are beginning to use collaboration tools like Trac, Twiki or Sharepoint. These solutions allow files to be stored internally, access to be restricted back and to ensure proper versions of files are available for those that need them, with out the risk of outsiders having email and attachments inadvertently forward to them.